Borrelia miyamotoi is a bacterium recently recognized to cause disease in humans. Although it sounds similar to the bacteria that causes Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, Borrelia miyamotoi is more closely related to the bacteria that causes tickborne relapsing fever.
The bacteria was first discovered in Japan in 1995. In the United States, the first human infections were reported in 2013. The first case in a Vermont resident was reported to the Health Department in 2016.